Jembatan Rangka Batang(Truss)

25 Apr

Jembatan Rangka Batang terdiri dari dua rangka bidang utama yang diikat bersama dengan balok-balok melintang dan pengaku lateral. Rangka batang pada umumnya dipakai sebagai struktur pengaku untuk jembatan gantung konvensional, karena memiliki kemampuan untuk dilalui angin (aerodinamis) yang baik. Beratnya yang relatif ringan merupakan keuntungan dalam pembangunannya, dimana jembatan bisa dirakit bagian demi bagian.
Jembatan rangka batang jarang terlihat memiliki estetika yang baik, namun untuk jembatan rangka yang panjang dan besar faktor itu tidak begitu kentara karena pengaruh visual dalam skala besar. Contoh terkenal dari jembatan rangka batang baja yang artistik adalah jembatan Sydney Harbour di Australia dan jembatan New River George di West Virginia (USA), dimana keduanya merupakan jembatan rangka batang yang berbentuk pelengkung.

Jembatan Rangka Batang Pelengkung
Sydney Harbour, Australia

Jembatan Rangka Batang Pelengkung
New River George, West Virginia
Jembatan rangka batang ada beberapa tipe. Disain, lokasi, dan bahan-bahan peyusunnya menentukan tipe rangka batang apa yang akan dipakai. Pada awal masa revolusi industri, jembatan balok dengan tambahan rangka batang berkembang sangat cepat di Amerika. Salah satu rangka batang yang terkenal adalah rangka batang Howe, yang dipatenkan oleh William pada tahun 1840. Inovasinya merupakan perkembangan dari rangka batang Kingpost, bedanya ditambahkan batang vertikal diantara batang diagonalnya.
Tipe-tipe Rangka Batang
Kelebihan Jembatan Rangka Batang
• Gaya batang utama merupakan gaya aksial
• Dengan sistem badan terbuka (open web) pada rangka batang dimungkinkan menggunakan tinggi maksimal dibandingkan dengan jembatan balok tanpa rongga.
Kedua faktor diatas menyebabkan pengurangan berat sendiri struktur.
Disamping itu, ukuran yang tinggi juga mengurangi lendutan sehingga struktur lebih kaku. Keuntungan ini diperoleh sebagai ganti dari biaya pabrikasi dan pemeliharaan yang lebih tinggi. Jembatan rangka batang yang konvensional paling ekonomis untuk bentang sedang.
Kelemahan Jembatan Rangka batang
• Efisiensi rangka batang tergantung dari panjang bentangnya, artinya jika jembatan rangka batang dibuat semakin panjang, maka ukuran dari rangka batang itu sendiri juga harus diperbesar atau dibuat lebih tinggi dengan sudut yang lebih besar untuk menjaga kekakuannya, sampai rangka batang itu mencapai titik dimana berat sendiri jembatan terlalu besar sehingga rangka batang tidak mampu lagi mendukung beban tersebut.


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